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    In the name of Allah[God], most gracious, most merciful

    Mohammad in the bible 

He bringeth them out of darkness unto light by His decree, and guideth 
          them unto a straight path. 

Muhammad (pbuh) is mentioned by name in the Song of Solomon 5:16. 
The Hebrew word used in this verse is Mahamaddim. The ending letters 'im' is a plural of  respect, majesty and grandeur, just as in Elohim (the God). Without 'im' the name becomes Mahamadd which was translated as "altogether lovely" in the Authorized Version of the Bible or 'The Praised One', 'the one worthy of Praise.' In Arabic, Muhammad means the one who is most praised. 

     * Song of Solomon 5:16 
     His mouth is most sweet: yea, he is altogether lovely. This is my 
beloved, and this is my  friend, O daughters of Jerusalem. 

The phrase "he is altogether lovely" reads in the Hebrew as "he is 

     Haggai 2:7-9 
     And I will shake all nations, and the Himada of all the nations 
will come; and I will fill this house with glory, says the Lord of hosts. Mine is the silver, mine is the gold, says  the Lord of hosts, the glory of my last house shall be greater than that of the first one,  says the Lord of hosts; and in this place I will give Shalom, says the Lord of Hosts. 
     (Quoted from Reference 4). 

The Hebrew words Mahmad, Mahamod, Himdah, and Hemed appearing in the Old Testament and the Arabic words Muhammad and Ahmad are all derived from the same root "H, M and D," and refer to the same general meaning. These Hebrew words convey qualities as well as the person depending on the phrase used in the Old Testament. The Hebrew word Shalom and the Arabic word Salam have the same meaning - peace. They are derived from the root alphabets "S, L and M." Islam is also derived from the same root alphabets and means the 
path of peace. 
More Quotes on "Mohammad in the bible and other  Scriptures" on the links below.   


    Islamic Medicine 
"Allah the Almighty is pure and accepts only that which is pure. Allah has asked the believers to do that. He asked the messengers, and the Almighty has said: (23:5 1) " 0 you messengers! Eat of the pure things and do right." And Allah the Almighty has said: (2:172) "O you who believe! Eat of the pure things that we have provided you." Then the Prophet (pbuh) gave example of a man tired and dusty after a long journey, raises his hands to the sky and says: "O Lord! 0 Lord!".. while his food is unlawful, his drink is unlawful, his clothing is unlawful, and he is nourished unlawfully, so how can his prayers be answered?" (Narrated by Abu Huraira-R.A. reported in Muslim.)  

In old testament Leviticus Chapter 7-8, it is mentioned about swine " 
Though he divides the hoof and be cloven footed, yet he cheweth not the 
cud, he is unclean to you. Of their flesh shall you not eat." 
There is no mention in the Bible that Jesus ever ate pork in his 
life. It was Paul who declared all food and drink permissible saying,  
"To the pure, everything is pure." 

For the benefits of non-medical readers, before I describe the topic in question i.e. hormonal and behavioral effect of prohibited food, intoxicants and ingredients, I must define some medical terms and inter-relationships: 

These are the powerful secretions of Endocrine (internal) glands. They control the functions of all organs, and even individual cells. They are made from proteins (peptides) or sterols in nature. The endocrine glands are hypothalmus which secretes various releasing hormones for pituitary, and pituitary which secretes hormones for target endocrine glands. Both of them are inside the brain. Target endocrine glands are thyroid hormones. Thyroid hormones control our metabolism, energy level, and temperature tolerance. Behind them are para-thyroid gland which control our calcium metabolism. In the abdomen are adrenal glands above the kidneys which secrete cortisone, the life saving essential hormone, and catecholamines and aldosterone which control our blood pressure and heart-rate. steroids and catecholamines are derived from cholesterol. Also in the abdomen is the pancreas which secretes insulin which lowers blood sugar, and glycogen which raises a low blood sugar. Lower down in the pelvis are gonads, ovaries in women, and testes in men, which secrete estrogen, progesterone and testosterone respectively. All these hormones have internal control, and influence each other. They control our growth, muscle mass, bone development, temperature tolerance, blood pressure, energy, fertility, sex desire, thirst, and well being in general. 

The site of secretion of releasing hormone, and of neurotransmitter in the brain are the same in the hypothalmic area. Most of the psychotropic drugs either act by increasing or decreasing the neurotransmitter levels i.e epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine or endorphrin level in the hypothalmic area. Similarly, peurotransmitters influence hormone secretion. Clinically we see various behavioral manifestations in endocrine disorders. Hypoglycemic patients (low blood sugar) suffer from depression and poor mental concentration and patients with low thyroid have impotency and depression, while patients with high thyroid have agitation, irritability, and lack of sleep. Patients with low cortisone (Addison Disease) have severe depression while with high cortisone have hallucination and psychosis. Patients with high testosterone have been claimed to have criminal tendencies (i.e. rapists) while low testosterone have behavioral problems in adjustment. Patients with calcium changes. 

Physiologically, boys and girls are different in playing behavior i.e. aggressive versus passive (playing with mechanical toys and guns versus dolls) due to difference in their sex hormone even in pre-pubertal age. This becomes more obvious after full sex differentiation takes place. In fact, by changing the sex hormone level of a given sex one can change not only the sexual behavior but the aggressiveness of a particular sex. Homosexual males have been noted to have less male sex hormones, and on the other hand, repeated sex offending males can be "cured" by castration or by the injection of the female hormone progesterone. In one experiment, female rats whose mothers were treated with testosterone while pregnant showed male behavior pattern of threatening peer, rough play, and increased sexual activity as compared to a control rat. This shows that testosterone not only affects the individual, but the offspring as well. Girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (excessive testosterone secretion) when in post puberty age show tomboy attitude with liking rough sports, preferring boys as playmates, and low interest in dolls and baby care. Sexual behavior is not only affected by testosterone, but also by the pineal gland which is turned off and on by light and darkness. 

Hormones, not directly but indirectly by controlling\sugar, calcium, sodium balance,affect behavior in general to include anger, love, anxiety, panic attacks, and agitation. The hyperactivity in children could be due to low blood sugar or due to many food preservatives and coloring agent like nitrites, and Dye No. 5. 

After this much introduction of hormones, and behavior, I turn to the main theme. 

Pork meat and fat are not only prohibited to Muslims, but were also prohibited to Jews and Christians as well because "Swine were designed to be scavengers, to eat up filth." In old testament Leviticus Chapter 7-8, it is mentioned about swine " Though he divides the hoof and be cloven footed, yet he cheweth not the cud, he is unclean to you. Of their flesh shall you not eat." There is no mention in the Bible that Jesus ever ate pork in his life. It was Paul who declared all food and drink permissible saying, "To the pure, everything is pure." 

To get a first hand idea, I interviewed farmers of Fisher, Indiana, who breed swine. According to them "Swine is cheaper to breed, since it does not require pasture, it can live on manure and other such items including dead meat. In fact, it can even eat its own feces. Their sexual habits are also different from other animals like cow, sheep and goat. Swine have very little shame i.e. engage in sex acts anytime anyplace. The female hog is very aggressive in sexual activities when she is in "heat" she does not care about anything (i.e. food or privacy) until she has the sex. They i.e. swine, also lick the genitals of their partners after sex like dogs, but not other mammals like cow, sheep or goat." 

Fats are lipids which are a source of energy. They can be of vegetable source or of animal source. Triglycerides are neutral fats with 1 molecule of glycerol and three fatty acids. The fatty acids can be saturated or unsaturated.The more unsaturated fats have high melting points. The iodine value of fat gives the degree of un saturation. The iodine value of lard is 65, beef 45, and mutton 32. After ingestion, emulsification of fat takes place in the stomach by gastric lipase. By pancreatic lipase hydrolysis of triglyceride into glycerol and fatty acids takes place. The fatty acids and glycerol are used by various tissues like muscle, heart, kidney, and liver for an energy source. Herbivorous (plant eating) animals have unsaturated fatty acid on the position 2 of the triglyceride (tg) molecule, while the carnivorous (meat eating )animals have saturated fatty acid at the position 2. Pancreatic lipase (pl) can not hydrolyze TG molecule if saturated fatty acid at position 2. Fat of dogs, rats, cats, and pork, have saturated fatty acids on positions 2. If a person eats fat of herbivorous animal, the fat will be hydrolyzed, absorbed, and then re synthesized and stored as human fat, while that of carnivorous animals and pork fat will not be hydrolyzed and therefore has to be deposited in humans as pork fat in the adipose tissue. 

Circulating hormones are in bound form and free form. The free form has to be attached to receptor in fat tissue before becoming active. Obesity decreases the number of receptors therefore the hormones cannot be utilized. Therefore, if the hormone is insulin, it leads to diabetes (type 2); and if it is testosterone, it leads to sub fertility and amenorrhea. The amount of fat also controls hormone release. Therefore we see menarche is delayed in athletic girls with less fat, and occurs early in sedentary overweight girls. 

It can be postulated that in humans who have pork fat deposit there is derangement in the binding of hormones, therefore they have a higher level of circulating active hormone. It is possible that the sexual promiscuity and deviant sexual practices of pork eating society is due to what they eat ! After all, it has been said by nutritionists, "Yor are what you eat."  

Since this is a paper on hormones and behavior, the time does not permit discussing the effect of pork on cholesterol, sodium and the relationship to heart disease. 

Dead meat is the meat of animal which died before slaughtering and blood could not flow out, and blood ingestion is not only the drinking of blood as it was prevalent in the Jahiliya of Arabia or even now in Africa (and in France) but also the blood which is retained inside the meat by improper killing of the animal. All hormones, and antibodies are retained in the blood, and all infective organisms including virus flourish in the blood media, therefore ingestion of such will be dangerous midecally. It may also induce animal instincts as seen in carnivorous animals like dogs, cats, and lions. 

Both in acute and chronic alcoholism, endocrine glands are affected. Hypoglycemia is a manifestation of acute alcoholism which may be severe, and can lead to coma. This should be recognized and treated with dextrose intravenously since it mat not respond to glycogen. Low magnesium with resultant low calcium is another effect resulting in poor concentration, muscle twitching and even seizure. Increase in urine flow is due to depression of antidiuretic hormone. 

Chronic alcoholism leads to pancreatitis with failure of pancreatic endocrine system (sometimes Diabetes) and exocrine gland (malnutrition). This leads to protein deficiency leading to reduced production of testosterone, which may lead to impotency, gynecomastia in men and amenorrhea in women. Alcoholics can also have a pseudo (false) cushing syndrome. Alcohol related liver disease 
causes increased clearance of testosterone with testicular atrophy leading to true hypogonadism. Sperm formation is also affected leading to infertility. Infants born to an alcoholic mother can also have undercended testes and labial hypoplasia. In addition, the cortisol levels are increased during withdrawal, while LH and LH-RH levels are suppressed during chronic alcoholism. 

Alcohol, being a central nervous system depressant, depresses both facilitatory and inhibitory pathways. It is the suppression of the latter that abolishes the shame and removes control. Therefore, what a normal person will be prevented from doing i.e. abusive language, undressing in public, etc. will not be prevented under the influence of alcohol. There are more serious behavioral disorders described to include brain disjunction in 50- 70%, memory loss, depression both acute and chronic, high suicide rate, mood fluctuation, delirium tremorous (DTS) in withdrawal state, and blackout spells during drinking. One-third of all auto accidents are due to alcoholism. Under the influence of alcohol are mental judgement and motor skills, which are both affected. Sometimes the level of consciousness is also affected. Alcohol had been found to be at the root of family violence, sexual violence, rape, assault, and child abuse. 

Alcohol is not an aphrodisiac, as it is claimed. Not only does it depress the central nervous system's effect on the libido, but actually lowers the penile blood flow and tumescence (swelling) thereby decreasing the performance. 

Both LSD and cocaine cause decreases in plasma testosterone and LH. The aphrodisiac effect is due to local anesthesia causing prolonged erection and central stimulation causing general well being. Also by inhibiting the inhibitions, they encourage engagement in unusual sex acts like sodomy or oral genital sex. 

Psychologically they cause mood elation and a false sense of euphoria followed by depression, anxiety and agitation Panic attacks, suicidal tendencies, and violent behaviors are not uncommon. Chronic usage may lead to schizophrenia, paranoia, and a variety of psychiatric disorders, even infants born to cocaine addicted mothers show signs of withdrawal. 

If ingredients are of prohibited nature, i.e. pork, lard, alcohol, cocaine etc., the effect will be as described earlier, though because of the small quantity, the effect will be slow and may be cumulative. 

More serious are items like sugar which causes reactive hypoglycemia; sodium which may lead to hypertension; DES (Diethylstillbestrol, a female hormone given to cattle and chickens to increase fat and muscle content) linked to vaginal and cervical cancer in women; and artificial sweeteners like saccharine related to bladder cancer in rats, and aspartame related to brain damage. 

More research is needed on all of the above areas, especially those affecting the life style of Muslims. Though usage of prohibited items are not commonly found in Muslims, the dangers also may come to their health and spirits by the effects of non-prohibited items like western rock music, dress (i.e. tight jeans affecting testicular temperature) and sexual practices, and cigarette smoking. 


1. -Qur'an;2:173,5:4,6:145,16:115,2:219,4:43,5:98,5:91. 
2. - Yusaf Al Qardawi; The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam: 39-61. 
3. - Hussaini, M.M. and A.H. Sakr. 1983, Islamic Dietary Laws and 
     Practices, Published by the Islamic Food and Nutiition Council of 
     America, Chicago, Illinois U.S.A. 
4. -William,R.H.;Test Book of Endocrinolocy. 6th edition:chapter on 
5. - Felig & Baxter; Endocrinology and Metabolism. 
6. - Goodart & Shils; Modern Nutrition in Health And Disease: 6th edition. 
7. -Badri,M.B.; Islam and Alcoholism: ATP Publication, lndianapolis. 
8. - Saud, M.A.; Sex Roles in Muslim Families in U.S.A.; Published in  Al-ittihad. 
9. - Drucker, WM.; Endocrinc Abnormalities caused by Alcobolism; 
       Medical Aspect of Human Sexuality-Vol. 16, No. 12, Dec. 1982. 
10. - Eckardt et a]; Health Hazard Associated with Alcohol Consumption: JAMA 1981. 
11. - Washton and Stone; Human Cost of Cocaine Use; Medical Aspects 
        of Human Sexuality-Vol. 18, No. II, Nov. 1984. 

September 20, 1986 at the Fourth Annual Convention of the Islamic 
Food and Nutrition Council of America, held at the Muslim Community Center, Chicago. 

 Other Scientific & Islamic Links : 

Historical links of Prophet Mohammad with the bible 
The Last Prophet and Quran in Previously revealed Scriptures 
Prophet Muhammad(pbuh) in the Hindu Scriptures 
Prophet Muhammad(pbuh) in the Parsi Scriptures 
Mohammad the Prophet by  Dr. Ramakrishna Rao
What the bible says about Muhammad(peace be upon him),  
the prophet of Islam 
Women in Islam versus Women in Judaeo-Chritian Tradition : 

What the non-muslims say about Prophet Muhammad(pbuh) 
New Trends :  Some American Scientists who embraced Islam 
Let the Bible Speak  
Huma's Mamalist of Islamic Links 
Muslim Children in America : "We want a Christmas Tree" 

From the Islam & Science Home Page of Islamic Gateway 

Islamic Views on Important [Medical] Issues  Non-Islamic Links: 
World Health Organization 
MedWeb: Biomedical Internet Resources 
Health Link 
Medical Matrix 
Health Gate 
Virtual Hospital 
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 
Docs Web 
Medical Dictionary 
Webster's Dictionary 
Various Dictionaries including Islamic Glossary 



Imran Ahmad Ali