In the name of Allah[God],
most gracious, most merciful
He bringeth them out of darkness unto light by His
decree, and guideth
them unto a straight path.
Muhammad (pbuh) is mentioned by name in the
Song of Solomon 5:16.
The Hebrew word used in this verse is Mahamaddim.
The ending letters 'im' is a plural of respect,
majesty and grandeur, just as in Elohim (the God). Without 'im'
the name becomes Mahamadd which was translated as "altogether lovely" in
the Authorized Version of the Bible or 'The Praised One', 'the one worthy
of Praise.' In Arabic, Muhammad means the one who is most praised.
* Song of Solomon
His mouth is most sweet:
yea, he is altogether lovely. This is my
beloved, and this is my friend, O daughters
The phrase "he is altogether lovely" reads in
the Hebrew as "he is
And I will shake all
nations, and the Himada of all the nations
will come; and I will fill this house with glory,
says the Lord of hosts. Mine is the silver, mine
is the gold, says the Lord of hosts, the glory of my last house shall
be greater than that of the first one,
says the Lord of hosts; and in this place I will give Shalom, says
the Lord of Hosts.
(Quoted from Reference
The Hebrew words Mahmad, Mahamod, Himdah, and
Hemed appearing in the Old Testament and
the Arabic words Muhammad and Ahmad are all derived
from the same root "H, M and D," and refer
to the same general meaning. These Hebrew words convey qualities
as well as the person depending on the phrase used
in the Old Testament. The Hebrew word Shalom
and the Arabic word Salam have the same meaning - peace. They are derived
from the root alphabets "S, L and M." Islam
is also derived from the same root alphabets and means the
path of peace.
More Quotes on "Mohammad in the bible and other Scriptures" on the
"Allah the Almighty is pure and accepts only that
which is pure. Allah has asked the believers to do that. He asked the messengers,
and the Almighty has said: (23:5 1) " 0 you messengers! Eat of the pure
things and do right." And Allah the Almighty has said: (2:172) "O you who
believe! Eat of the pure things that we have provided you." Then the Prophet
(pbuh) gave example of a man tired and dusty after a long journey, raises
his hands to the sky and says: "O Lord! 0 Lord!".. while his food is unlawful,
his drink is unlawful, his clothing is unlawful, and he is nourished unlawfully,
so how can his prayers be answered?" (Narrated by Abu Huraira-R.A. reported
In old testament Leviticus Chapter 7-8, it is
mentioned about swine "
Though he divides the hoof and be cloven footed,
yet he cheweth not the
cud, he is unclean to you. Of their flesh shall
you not eat."
There is no mention in the Bible that Jesus ever
ate pork in his
life. It was Paul who declared all food
and drink permissible saying,
"To the pure, everything is pure."
For the benefits of non-medical readers, before
I describe the topic in question i.e. hormonal and behavioral
effect of prohibited food, intoxicants and ingredients, I must define some
medical terms and inter-relationships:
These are the powerful secretions of Endocrine
(internal) glands. They control the functions of all organs,
and even individual cells. They are made from proteins (peptides) or sterols
in nature. The endocrine glands are hypothalmus
which secretes various releasing hormones for pituitary, and pituitary
which secretes hormones for target endocrine glands. Both of them are inside
the brain. Target endocrine glands are thyroid hormones. Thyroid hormones
control our metabolism, energy level, and temperature tolerance. Behind
them are para-thyroid gland which control our calcium metabolism. In the
abdomen are adrenal glands above the kidneys which secrete cortisone, the
life saving essential hormone, and catecholamines and aldosterone which
control our blood pressure and heart-rate. steroids and catecholamines
are derived from cholesterol. Also in the abdomen is the pancreas which
secretes insulin which lowers blood sugar, and glycogen which raises a
low blood sugar. Lower down in the pelvis are gonads, ovaries in women,
and testes in men, which secrete estrogen, progesterone and testosterone
respectively. All these hormones have internal control, and influence each
other. They control our growth, muscle mass, bone development, temperature
tolerance, blood pressure, energy, fertility, sex desire, thirst, and well
being in general.
HOW DO HORMONES AFFECT BEHAVIOR:
The site of secretion of releasing hormone, and
of neurotransmitter in the brain are the same in the hypothalmic
area. Most of the psychotropic drugs either act by increasing or decreasing
the neurotransmitter levels i.e epinephrine,
norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine or endorphrin level in the hypothalmic
area. Similarly, peurotransmitters influence hormone secretion.
Clinically we see various behavioral manifestations
in endocrine disorders. Hypoglycemic patients (low blood sugar) suffer
from depression and poor mental concentration and patients with low thyroid
have impotency and depression, while patients with high thyroid have agitation,
irritability, and lack of sleep. Patients with low cortisone (Addison Disease)
have severe depression while with high cortisone have hallucination and
psychosis. Patients with high testosterone have been claimed to have criminal
tendencies (i.e. rapists) while low testosterone have behavioral problems
in adjustment. Patients with calcium changes.
Physiologically, boys and girls are different
in playing behavior i.e. aggressive versus passive (playing with mechanical
toys and guns versus dolls) due to difference in their sex hormone even
in pre-pubertal age. This becomes more obvious after full sex differentiation
takes place. In fact, by changing the sex hormone level of a given sex
one can change not only the sexual behavior but the aggressiveness of a
particular sex. Homosexual males have been noted to have less male sex
hormones, and on the other hand, repeated sex offending males can be "cured"
by castration or by the injection of the female hormone progesterone. In
one experiment, female rats whose mothers were treated with testosterone
while pregnant showed male behavior pattern of threatening peer, rough
play, and increased sexual activity as compared to a control rat. This
shows that testosterone not only affects the individual, but the offspring
as well. Girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (excessive testosterone
secretion) when in post puberty age show tomboy attitude with liking rough
sports, preferring boys as playmates, and low interest in dolls and baby
care. Sexual behavior is not only affected by testosterone, but also by
the pineal gland which is turned off and on by light and darkness.
Hormones, not directly but indirectly by controlling\sugar,
calcium, sodium balance,affect behavior in general to include anger, love,
anxiety, panic attacks, and agitation. The hyperactivity in children could
be due to low blood sugar or due to many food preservatives and coloring
agent like nitrites, and Dye No. 5.
After this much introduction of hormones, and
behavior, I turn to the main theme.
HORMONAL AND BEHAVIORAL EEFFECT OF PORK MEAT
AND FAT INGESTION:
Pork meat and fat are not only prohibited to
Muslims, but were also prohibited to Jews and Christians as well because
"Swine were designed to be scavengers, to eat up filth." In old testament
Leviticus Chapter 7-8, it is mentioned about swine " Though he divides
the hoof and be cloven footed, yet he cheweth not the cud, he is unclean
to you. Of their flesh shall you not eat." There is no mention in the Bible
that Jesus ever ate pork in his life. It was Paul who declared all food
and drink permissible saying, "To the pure, everything is pure."
THE LIFE OF THE SWINE:
To get a first hand idea, I interviewed farmers
of Fisher, Indiana, who breed swine. According to them "Swine is cheaper
to breed, since it does not require pasture, it can live on manure and
other such items including dead meat. In fact, it can even eat its own
feces. Their sexual habits are also different from other animals like cow,
sheep and goat. Swine have very little shame i.e. engage in sex acts anytime
anyplace. The female hog is very aggressive in sexual activities when she
is in "heat" she does not care about anything (i.e. food or privacy) until
she has the sex. They i.e. swine, also lick the genitals of their partners
after sex like dogs, but not other mammals like cow, sheep or goat."
WHY IS PORK FAT DIFFERENT FROM OTHER ANIMAL
Fats are lipids which are a source of energy.
They can be of vegetable source or of animal source. Triglycerides
are neutral fats with 1 molecule of glycerol and three fatty acids. The
fatty acids can be saturated or unsaturated.The more unsaturated fats have
high melting points. The iodine value of fat gives
the degree of un saturation. The iodine value of lard is 65, beef 45, and
mutton 32. After ingestion, emulsification
of fat takes place in the stomach by gastric lipase. By pancreatic lipase
hydrolysis of triglyceride into glycerol and fatty
acids takes place. The fatty acids and glycerol are used by various tissues
like muscle, heart, kidney, and liver for an energy source. Herbivorous
(plant eating) animals have unsaturated fatty acid on the position 2 of
the triglyceride (tg) molecule, while the carnivorous (meat eating )animals
have saturated fatty acid at the position 2. Pancreatic lipase (pl) can
not hydrolyze TG molecule if saturated fatty acid at position 2. Fat of
dogs, rats, cats, and pork, have saturated fatty acids on positions 2.
If a person eats fat of herbivorous animal, the fat will be hydrolyzed,
absorbed, and then re synthesized and stored as human fat, while that of
carnivorous animals and pork fat will not be hydrolyzed and therefore has
to be deposited in humans as pork fat in the adipose tissue.
WHAT HAS DEPOSITION OF PORK FAT TO DO WITH
HORMONE AND BEHAVIOR IN HUMANS:
Circulating hormones are in bound form and free
form. The free form has to be attached to receptor in fat tissue before
becoming active. Obesity decreases the number of receptors therefore the
hormones cannot be utilized. Therefore, if the hormone is insulin, it leads
to diabetes (type 2); and if it is testosterone, it leads to sub fertility
and amenorrhea. The amount of fat also controls hormone release. Therefore
we see menarche is delayed in athletic girls with less fat, and occurs
early in sedentary overweight girls.
It can be postulated that in humans who have pork
fat deposit there is derangement in the binding of hormones, therefore
they have a higher level of circulating active hormone. It is possible
that the sexual promiscuity and deviant sexual practices of pork eating
society is due to what they eat ! After all, it has been said by nutritionists,
"Yor are what you eat."
Since this is a paper on hormones and behavior,
the time does not permit discussing the effect of pork on cholesterol,
sodium and the relationship to heart disease.
EFFECTS OF DEAD MEAT AND BLOOD INGESTION:
Dead meat is the meat of animal which died before
slaughtering and blood could not flow out, and blood
ingestion is not only the drinking of blood as it was prevalent in the
Jahiliya of Arabia or even now in Africa (and
in France) but also the blood which is retained inside the meat by improper
killing of the animal. All hormones, and antibodies are retained in the
blood, and all infective organisms including virus flourish in the blood
media, therefore ingestion of such will be dangerous midecally. It may
also induce animal instincts as seen in carnivorous animals like dogs,
cats, and lions.
HORMONAL EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL:
Both in acute and chronic alcoholism, endocrine
glands are affected. Hypoglycemia is a manifestation of acute alcoholism
which may be severe, and can lead to coma. This should be recognized and
treated with dextrose intravenously since it mat not respond to glycogen.
Low magnesium with resultant low calcium is another effect resulting in
poor concentration, muscle twitching and even seizure. Increase in urine
flow is due to depression of antidiuretic hormone.
Chronic alcoholism leads to pancreatitis with
failure of pancreatic endocrine system (sometimes Diabetes)
and exocrine gland (malnutrition). This leads to protein deficiency leading
to reduced production of testosterone, which
may lead to impotency, gynecomastia in men and amenorrhea in women.
Alcoholics can also have a pseudo (false) cushing syndrome. Alcohol related
causes increased clearance of testosterone with
testicular atrophy leading to true hypogonadism. Sperm
formation is also affected leading to infertility. Infants born to an alcoholic
mother can also have undercended testes and labial hypoplasia. In addition,
the cortisol levels are increased during withdrawal,
while LH and LH-RH levels are suppressed during chronic alcoholism.
BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL:
Alcohol, being a central nervous system depressant,
depresses both facilitatory and inhibitory pathways.
It is the suppression of the latter that abolishes the shame and removes
control. Therefore, what a normal person will
be prevented from doing i.e. abusive language, undressing in public, etc.
will not be prevented under the influence of alcohol. There are more serious
behavioral disorders described to include brain disjunction in 50- 70%,
memory loss, depression both acute and chronic, high suicide rate, mood
fluctuation, delirium tremorous (DTS) in withdrawal state, and blackout
spells during drinking. One-third of all auto accidents are due to alcoholism.
Under the influence of alcohol are mental judgement and motor skills, which
are both affected. Sometimes the level of consciousness is also affected.
Alcohol had been found to be at the root of family violence, sexual violence,
rape, assault, and child abuse.
Alcohol is not an aphrodisiac, as it is claimed.
Not only does it depress the central nervous system's effect
on the libido, but actually lowers the penile blood flow and tumescence
(swelling) thereby decreasing the performance.
EFFECTS OF NARCOTICS (COCAINE & MARIJUANA)
ON HORMONES AND BEHAVIOR:
Both LSD and cocaine cause decreases in plasma
testosterone and LH. The aphrodisiac effect is due to local anesthesia
causing prolonged erection and central stimulation causing general well
being. Also by inhibiting the inhibitions, they encourage engagement in
unusual sex acts like sodomy or oral genital sex.
Psychologically they cause mood elation and a
false sense of euphoria followed by depression, anxiety and agitation Panic
attacks, suicidal tendencies, and violent behaviors are not uncommon. Chronic
usage may lead to schizophrenia, paranoia, and a variety of psychiatric
disorders, even infants born to cocaine addicted mothers show signs of
EFFECTS OF INGREDIENTS ON HORMONES AND BEHAVIOR:
If ingredients are of prohibited nature, i.e.
pork, lard, alcohol, cocaine etc., the effect will be as described
earlier, though because of the small quantity, the effect will be slow
and may be cumulative.
More serious are items like sugar which causes
reactive hypoglycemia; sodium which may lead to hypertension;
DES (Diethylstillbestrol, a female hormone given to cattle and chickens
to increase fat and muscle content) linked
to vaginal and cervical cancer in women; and artificial sweeteners like
saccharine related to bladder cancer in rats, and
aspartame related to brain damage.
More research is needed on all of the above areas,
especially those affecting the life style of Muslims. Though usage of prohibited
items are not commonly found in Muslims, the dangers also may come to their
health and spirits by the effects of non-prohibited items like western
rock music, dress (i.e. tight jeans affecting testicular temperature) and
sexual practices, and cigarette smoking.
SELECTED SCIENTIFIC REFERENCES:
2. - Yusaf Al Qardawi; The Lawful and Prohibited
in Islam: 39-61.
3. - Hussaini, M.M. and A.H. Sakr. 1983, Islamic
Dietary Laws and
by the Islamic Food and Nutiition Council of
America, Chicago, Illinois
4. -William,R.H.;Test Book of Endocrinolocy.
6th edition:chapter on
5. - Felig & Baxter; Endocrinology and Metabolism.
6. - Goodart & Shils; Modern Nutrition in
Health And Disease: 6th edition.
7. -Badri,M.B.; Islam and Alcoholism: ATP Publication,
8. - Saud, M.A.; Sex Roles in Muslim Families
in U.S.A.; Published in Al-ittihad.
9. - Drucker, WM.; Endocrinc Abnormalities caused
Aspect of Human Sexuality-Vol. 16, No. 12, Dec. 1982.
10. - Eckardt et a]; Health Hazard Associated
with Alcohol Consumption: JAMA 1981.
11. - Washton and Stone; Human Cost of Cocaine
Use; Medical Aspects
Human Sexuality-Vol. 18, No. II, Nov. 1984.
September 20, 1986 at the Fourth Annual Convention
of the Islamic
Food and Nutrition Council of America, held at
the Muslim Community Center, Chicago.
& Islamic Links :
links of Prophet Mohammad with the bible
Last Prophet and Quran in Previously revealed Scriptures
Muhammad(pbuh) in the Hindu Scriptures
Muhammad(pbuh) in the Parsi Scriptures
the Prophet by Dr. Ramakrishna Rao
the bible says about Muhammad(peace be upon him),
prophet of Islam
in Islam versus Women in Judaeo-Chritian Tradition :
the non-muslims say about Prophet Muhammad(pbuh)
: Some American Scientists who embraced Islam
the Bible Speak
Mamalist of Islamic Links
in America : "We want a Christmas Tree"
Views on Important [Medical] Issues
From the Islam & Science
Home Page of Islamic Gateway
World Health Organization
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Various Dictionaries including
Imran Ahmad Ali